Individual therapy allows a therapist—who might be a professionally trained psychologist, social worker, counselor, psychiatrist, or marriage and family counselor—to help an individual work through their thoughts, concerns, emotions, and situations. Thus, individual therapy differs from getting advice from friends, family, and acquaintances, since it is a professional service provided by a trained professional.

Advantages of Individual Therapy

Individual therapy offers several advantages, including:

  • Confidentiality. The information shared during sessions remains completely private.
  • One-on-one attention. This allows the therapist to be thorough in understanding the individual’s specific problems and develop an individualized approach to treatment.
  • An intense and comprehensive level of analysis and treatment.
  • Completely customized to the individual. For example, individuals who can handle more focused and intense interventions may benefit from a quicker therapy pace. On the other hand, individuals who require time to adjust may benefit from a slower-paced therapy.
  • A strong therapeutic alliance, which refers to the working relationship between the individual and therapist. Research indicates that the therapeutic alliance is a key component of a successful therapy intervention.
  • The development of self-awareness, which comes by discussing issues and getting feedback from the therapist.
  • Flexible scheduling. The individual can arrange a time for the therapy sessions that is most conducive to their schedule.
  • Quick appointments- depending on the Practitioner’s schedule. 
  • The development of better communication skills.
  • An effective component in treating a broad range of mental health disorders.

Disadvantages of Individual Therapy

The disadvantages of individual therapy include:

  • Cost. It’s typically more expensive than group therapy.
  • No peer interaction. It doesn’t allow individuals to identify with others who share similar problems or issues.
  • A motivation requirement. Individuals, who are not committed to changing, doing the work, and applying the principles they learn, may struggle in certain situations.


Group therapy means more than one individual is being treated at the same time by at least one therapist. Some groups may have more than one therapist. Group sizes vary depending on the type of therapy. Recommendation for group therapy generally recommend 6 to 12 individuals in a group.

Types and Models of Group Therapy

  • Psychoeducational groups. The primary focus of these groups are to educate and inform individuals generally about substance abuse, mental health, related behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors.
  • Skills development groups. This model is flexible. The therapist can adapt the teaching of skills based on the needs of the individuals in the group. Skills focus on maintaining abstinence from drugs or alcohol and involve more interaction among the group members.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy groups. The therapist works to identify the problematic thinking and behaviors that contribute to issue(s) and teaches group members new thinking and behavior patterns. 
  • Support groups. Just as the name suggests, this model provides support and care for the members while teaching them interpersonal skills through group discussion, shared experiences, and collaborative problem-solving.
  • Interpersonal process groups. In this model, the therapist observes group interactions, functionality, and performance. The therapist helps members with their emotional development and addresses their childhood concerns that may lead them to poor decision-making and impulsive tendencies.

Advantages of Group Therapy

There are a number of advantages to group therapy, including:

  • The assurance that individuals aren’t alone. Other individuals share similar problems and struggles. 
  • The opportunity to receive and give support. Both of these notions are important in treatment. Receiving support from others is part of the bonding or therapeutic alliance that occurs in groups; whereas, giving support to others allows for growth and learning.
  • A broader therapeutic alliance, which allows for the incorporation of different points of view.
  • The development of communication and socialization skills, which allows individuals to learn how to express their issues and accept criticism from others.
  • The development of self-awareness, which comes from listening to others with similar issues.
  • The therapeutic nature that accompanies sharing one’s experiences with others who have similar problems.
  • The feeling of having a broad safety net for individuals who may otherwise be hesitant to discuss their feelings and perceived weaknesses.
  • The ability to model the successful behaviors of other individuals who have gone through similar experiences. Modeling is a form of learning where individuals learn by copying or imitating the actions of others.
  • Cost. Group therapy is typically less expensive than individual therapy.

Disadvantages of Group Therapy

The disadvantages individuals may experience in group therapy include:

  • Not being the center of attention. In many groups, the old adage “the squeaky wheel gets the grease” seems to apply. Thus, the level of intervention is not as focused and intense for any single person as individual therapy.
  • Less confidentiality. Although group members are generally instructed that the information and events that occur in the group are to be held confidential and only to be shared with group members during therapy, the potential for a breach of confidentiality is greater.
  • The potential for social loafing. Some individuals in groups do not actually make changes but simply ride on the success of others. Groups may allow unmotivated individuals to hide their issues and avoid accountability.
  • A less focused therapeutic alliance.
  • Less flexibility. Groups typically meet at specific times. There is less opportunity to fit the therapy into one’s personal schedule.
  • Not the right fit. Group therapy may be inappropriate for certain types of individuals, such as individuals who are extremely antisocial, extremely shy, impulsive, and passive-aggressive.


Family therapy is a type of treatment designed to help with issues that specifically affect families’ mental health and functioning. It can help individual family members build stronger relationships, improve communication, and manage conflicts within the family system.

Some of the primary goals of family therapy are to create a better home environment, solve family issues, and understand the unique issues that a family might face.1

Types of Family Therapy

There are several types of family therapy. A few that you might encounter include:1

  • Family systems therapy: This type is an approach that focuses on helping people utilize the strengths of their relationships to overcome mental health problems.
  • Functional family therapy: This is a short-term treatment often utilized for young people experiencing problems with risky behavior, violence, or substance use. It helps teens and families look for solutions while building trust and respect for each individual.
  • Narrative family therapy: This type encourages family members to each tell their own story to understand how those experiences shape who they are and how they relate to others. 
  • Psychoeducation: This type of treatment is centered on helping family members better understand mental health conditions. By knowing more about medications, treatment options, and self-help approaches, family members can function as a cohesive support system. 
  • Supportive family therapy: This type of therapy focuses on creating a safe environment where family members can openly share what they are feeling and get support from their family.


SPIRITUALITY is typically defined as the search for transcendent meaning or as a belief in a greater existence outside of humankind. It can be linked to religion, but the practice of spirituality is generally considered to go beyond religion and connect individuals with something larger, such as the universe itself.


Spirituality is generally considered to be broader than any religion one might practice, as it takes into account cognitive and philosophic areas of thought as well as aspects of emotions and behavior. Some might describe spirituality as the attempt to understand one’s nature or the meaning of one’s existence, but spirituality is also linked to internal awareness and happiness. Spirituality may also describe a person’s connection to others and to themselves. Spirituality may also describe the attention people pay to their own well-being and that of others. 


Spirituality and health are connected. Just as physical wellness describes health in the body, spiritual wellness describes health in the spirit. Spiritual wellness can relate to religious belief. Some people link their spiritual wellness to the natural world. Others define it by their relationships to others. Still others may nurture spiritual wellness by living a fulfilling life according to their personal values.

However spiritual wellness is defined, it involves a connection between people and something greater than themselves. This could be a higher power, a person’s own sense of meaning and purpose, or values or belief systems. Emotional and mental health, physical health, and spiritual health are all part of total wellness. The mind and body are connected, so when wellness in one area is lacking, other areas of health might be affected.

People in good spiritual health may:

  • Be hopeful and optimistic, even when things are difficult
  • Have compassion and empathy for others
  • Have defined values and live according to them
  • Have a strong sense of self-worth
  • Be more able to forgive others and themselves easily
  • Feel peaceful or in harmony with nature, life, and the world
  • Find solace in meditation or religious rituals like worship and prayer

People struggling with spiritual wellness might:

  • Feel empty or as if life lacks meaning
  • Often feel anxious or unsettled
  • Often feel as if they need to improve themselves
  • Feel unconcerned or uncaring about life
  • Judge themselves and others quickly and/or harshly
  • Find self-compassion and self-forgiveness difficult
  • Lack a sense of inner peace
  • Lack a sense of belonging


Some people consider spirituality and religion to be similar, if not identical concepts. While they are similar in ways, they aren’t the same. To understand the difference, it can help to think of religion as something that’s practiced and spirituality as something that simply is.

A person’s spirituality doesn’t necessarily depend on how religious they are. One way to think of spirituality is the inner energy in each person. This inner energy is part of who the person is: it might be their beliefs, values, ethics, or anything else that gives life meaning. It might involve activities that help people clarify thoughts and feelings, like journaling, yoga, or meditation.

People who belong to a religious faith often express their spirituality through their connection to their faith. They might feel supported by others who belong to the same faith and draw strength from their beliefs and prayers. But religious faith isn’t necessary for spirituality. It’s possible to draw meaning from life and feel connected to the greater world without practicing religious traditions or even believing in a higher power. Religion and spirituality both relate to mental health. A sense of belonging and connection can help promote resilience and decrease risk for some mental health concerns. 


Some individuals or families may be deeply committed to their faith and base much of their lives around spirituality or religion. Prayer, religious meditation, or some other aspect of spiritual connection may form part of an individual’s self-care routine, as might church or volunteer work in the community.

Spiritual beliefs can also play a significant role in one’s ability to cope with adverse events in life. Spiritual practices can:

  • Provide social and emotional support
  • Help people find meaning and purpose in life
  • Offer comfort in times of grief
  • Provide ethical and moral guidelines by which some choose to live